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Drugs policy

The current drugs situation in the EU requires comprehensive and multisector responses across security, health and social policy covering the law enforcement, scientific, environmental, socio-political, technological and international dimensions of the issue. A people-centred and human rights-oriented approach are the cornerstones of EU drugs policy.

EU coordination in the fight against drugs

As part of EU efforts in the field of drugs, the EU is taking strategic and operational measures to reduce drug supply and demand by working closely with all partners at national and international level, EU institutions, bodies and agencies, as well as civil society organisations.

Justice and Home Affairs EU agencies such as the EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction) and Europol (the European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation) play a central role in the drugs field in the EU and internationally.

Through the EU Drugs Strategy, the EU coordinates evidence-based, balanced and integrated measures with EU countries and speaks with one voice internationally. Law enforcement action against drug trafficking is coordinated through EMPACT (European Multidisciplinary Platform Against Criminal Threats). Drugs-related health damage is addressed under prevention, treatment and care services and harm reduction.

EU Drugs Strategy 2021-2025

In the context of the EU Security Union Strategy, the Commission adopted the EU Agenda and Action Plan on Drugs 2021-2025 to set out the Commission’s priorities for action in the field of drugs. Based on this document, the Council of the EU approved the EU Drugs Strategy 2021-2025.

The Strategy aims to:

  • protect and improve the well-being of society and of the individual
  • protect and promote public health
  • offer a high level of security and well-being for the general public
  • increase health literacy.

The Strategy takes an evidence-based, integrated, balanced and multidisciplinary approach to the drugs phenomenon at national, EU and international level. It also incorporates a gender equality and health equity perspective.

The Strategy is structured around three policy areas that will contribute to achieving its aim, and three cross-cutting themes in support of the policy areas. Altogether, the Strategy encompasses 11 strategic priorities.

The three policy areas and corresponding strategic priorities are:

Drug supply reduction: Enhancing Security

  • Strategic priority 1: Disrupt and dismantle high-risk drug-related organised crime groups operating in, originating in or targeting the EU Member States; address links with other security threats and improve crime prevention
  • Strategic priority 2: Increase the detection of illicit wholesale trafficking of drugs and drug precursors at EU points of entry and exit
  • Strategic priority 3: Tackle the exploitation of logistical and digital channels for medium- and small-volume illicit drug distribution and increase seizures of illicit substances smuggled through these channels in close cooperation with the private sector
  • Strategic priority 4: Dismantle illicit drug production and counter illicit cultivation; prevent the diversion and trafficking of drug precursors for illicit drug production; and address environmental damage

Drug demand reduction: prevention, treatment and care services

  • Strategic priority 5: Prevent drug use and raise awareness of the adverse effects of drugs
  • Strategic priority 6: Ensure access to and strengthen treatment and care services

Addressing drug-related harm

  • Strategic priority 7: Risk- and harm-reduction interventions and other measures to protect and support people who use drugs
  • Strategic priority 8: Address the health and social needs of people who use drugs in prison settings and after release

The three cross-cutting themes and corresponding strategic priorities are:

International cooperation

  • Strategic priority 9: Strengthening international cooperation with third countries, regions, international and regional organisations, and at multilateral level to pursue the approach and objectives of the Strategy, including in the field of development. Enhancing the role of the EU as a global broker for a people-centred and human rights-oriented drug policy

Research, innovation and foresight

  • Strategic priority 10: Building synergies to provide the EU and its Member States with the comprehensive research evidence base and foresight capacities necessary to enable a more effective, innovative and agile approach to the growing complexity of the drugs phenomenon, and to increase the preparedness of the EU and its Member States to respond to future challenges and crises

Coordination, governance and implementation

  • Strategic priority 11: Ensuring optimal implementation of the Strategy and of the Action Plan, coordination by default of all stakeholders and the provision of adequate resources at EU and national levels

The EU Drugs Strategy will be accompanied by an Action Plan covering concrete operational steps and activities.

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Rules on new psychoactive substances (NPS)

Since 2005 a system is in place to detect new substances on the market and a mechanism to assess their risks and put those substances which are harmful under control across the EU. Based on a risk assessment made by the EMCDDA, the Commission presents a proposal to ban harmful new psychoactive substances.

Given the rapid rise of new psychoactive substances, the rules were updated in 2017 to:

  • Ensure that the EU has effective tools to take swifter action to ban the most dangerous of these substances from the EU drugs markets. This is due to shorter deadlines and more streamlined procedures.
  • Strengthen the role of the EMCDDA, which hosts the Early Warning System, working 7 days/week and 24 hours/day, to allow the sharing of information among EU countries.

EU Agencies and initiatives working in the field of drugs

Justice and Home Affairs EU agencies working in the field of drugs include:

  • EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction)
  • Europol (the European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation)
  • Frontex (the European Border and Coast Guard Agency)
  • Eurojust (the European Union Agency for Criminal Justice Cooperation)
  • CEPOL (the European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Training)

The EMCDDA provides the EU and its countries with a factual overview on European level concerning drugs, drug addiction and their consequences. This provides a solid evidence base to support drugs policy-making on European and national level. Europol, Frontex, Eurojust and CEPOL support the EU and its countries in the area of freedom, security and justice, in which the issue of drugs is prioritised. The EU agencies also work with international organisations and other non-EU partners.

The Commission co-funds initiatives in the field of drugs such as the Maritime Analysis and Operations Centre – Narcotics (MAOC-N) which provides a forum for multi-lateral cooperation to suppress illicit drug trafficking by sea and air.

Civil society involvement

Civil society, in particular non-governmental organisations (NGOs), is an important partner in the implementation of EU drugs policy. The Commission has set up an Expert Group — the Civil Society Forum on Drugs (CSFD), which supports policy formulation and implementation through practical advice.

EU financial programmes for drug-related projects

The following EU financial programmes included funding for drug-related projects between 2014-2020, to help implement the objectives set by the EU Drugs Strategy 2013-2020 and to foster cross-border cooperation and research on drug issues:

In the 2021-2027 programming period, the following funds are envisaged to address various drugs-related challenges:

International cooperation

The international framework for regulating the production, export, import, distribution, trade, use and possession of illicit drugs is defined by three main international drug control conventions. Most UN countries are party to these conventions and have introduced drug control measures.

The EU is active on the international stage in the field of drugs, promoting the approach and objectives of the EU Drugs Strategy with one voice. The EU’s external relations in the field of drugs are based on the principles of shared responsibility, multilateralism, the promotion of a development-oriented approach, respect for human rights and human dignity, the rule of law and respect for the international drug control conventions.

The EU addresses the issue of drugs internationally through:

  • taking up an active role at UN level, notably in the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, to support the work on assessing and developing drug policies
  • regional dialogues on drugs with Latin America and the Caribbean, Central Asia, Eastern Partnership, and the Western Balkans
  • bilateral dedicated dialogues with a number of countries such as the US, China, and Russia
  • assistance for a wide range of drug-related cooperation projects in Latin America, the Caribbean and West Africa along the cocaine trafficking route, and in Afghanistan and Central Asia along the heroin route
  • technical assistance projects in the candidate countries and potential candidate countries of the Western Balkans, to help prepare for their possible accession to the EU

In terms of preventing the diversion of precursors that could be used in the manufacturing of drugs, cooperation between the EU and other regions or countries has a significant role to play (see dedicated page on drug precursors control).

Tolerance of cannabis is growing just as scientists show that it can cause insanity

Supporters of cannabis legalisation are like the tobacco companies denying the link between smoking and cancer

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The singer Justin Bieber is promoting pre-rolled cannabis joints that he calls “Peaches”, the name of a song from an album. He is doing so in association with a Los Angeles-based company, Palms Partners, that specialises in selling seven-joint packs for $32 (£24) in California and Nevada. “I’m a fan of Palms and what they are doing by making cannabis approachable and helping to destigmatise it – especially for the many people who find it helpful for their mental health,” he says.

Bieber is one of a strange coalition seeking to legitimise cannabis (marijuana) for its health-giving properties or because they believe that criminalisation has failed and proved counter-productive. Online advertising for recreational cannabis in the US claims that it is an antidote for depression. Amazon, the largest delivery company in the world, is reportedly lobbying in Washington for marijuana’s legalisation at the federal level.

In Britain, the former Conservative Party leader William Hague argues in a newspaper column for a move “from seeing drug use as a criminal issue to a health issue, achieving a crucial change in culture”. He praises Portugal for reclassifying as a misdemeanour the possession and purchase of drugs for individual consumption.

Legalising and commercialising cannabis is well under way from Uruguay to Canada and in at least 10 states in the US. Paradoxically, this shift towards the toleration of cannabis as more or less harmless is taking place just as scientists conclusively prove the link between cannabis and psychosis (a less shocking word than “madness” or “insanity”, but the meaning is the same). Cause and effect is today as well established as it is between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.

“Numerous prospective studies have shown that cannabis use carries an increased risk of later schizophrenic-like psychosis,” says an article by Sir Robin Murray of the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience at King’s College London and Wayne Hall of the National Centre for Youth Substance Use Research at the University of Queensland. They cite a study showing that, though Portugal is held up as a pioneer in dealing with drugs, the rate of hospitalisation for psychotic disorders has increased 29-fold since decriminalisation 15 years ago. Another study calculates that between 30 per cent and 50 per cent of new cases of psychosis in London and Amsterdam would not have occurred if the individual affected had not been smoking high-potency cannabis.


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Personal observation confirms this: doctors in mental hospitals have told me that they scarcely bother anymore to ask patients if they have taken cannabis, but simply assume it is the case. The situation has deteriorated as the proportion of THC, the psychoactive substance in cannabis producing the “high”, has risen precipitately. Once as low as 3 per cent, it has risen to 10 to 15 per cent in Europe and North America, though in Colorado, the first state to legalise recreational use, the THC can reach as high as 70 per cent. Those taking cannabis daily, particularly if they are young, face an escalating risk of permanent mental breakdown.

But if cannabis has already had its “tobacco moment”, when the damage it does is scientifically proven, why do celebrities like Justin Bieber want to destigmatise it and persuade consumers that it will improve their mental health?

Part of the boosterism in favour of cannabis plugs into its old association with a bohemian lifestyle and “the swinging Sixties”. But it is commercial pressure that is becoming far more important in lobbying for its legalisation. Businesses see they can make money out of it: projected legal sales of cannabis will be worth $66.3bn by 2025, according to a report. Big profits will pay for advertising and lobbying campaigns lauding the drug’s virtues and seeking to put in doubt or divert attention from the harm it causes.

The cigarette industry did this a century ago, funding “independent” experts who sought to blur or discredit evidence that smoking caused cancer. Governments were seduced by high tax revenues from tobacco sales and reluctant to do anything to curtail them. Hollywood stars such as John Wayne, Clark Gable and Spencer Tracy happily – and profitably – glamourised cigarettes, much as is happening to cannabis now.

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Businesses seeking to emulate the tobacco companies at the height of their profitability have formed a bizarre de facto alliance with liberals and progressives, who are appalled by the disastrous mess created by government drug policy. The so-called “war on drugs” has demonstrably inflicted more misery in the US, certainly on the black community, than real military conflicts.

But an overreaction to government failure, provoking a dash in the opposite direction, has equal dangers. Those in favour of greater tolerance towards drugs are almost invariably thinking of cannabis as much less nasty than heroin and cocaine. But I have met psychiatrists, with long experience of dealing with drug victims of all sorts, who believe that cannabis is more dangerous than the other drugs because it has the potential to damage many more people.

About 3 million people take illicit drugs in England and Wales, of whom about 2.5 million consume cannabis, some 10 per cent on a daily basis in 2017-18, according to the review of drugs report by Dame Carol Black. Much of the cannabis is produced in the UK, sometimes by Vietnamese organised crime groups using slave labour. Most of the violence provoked by drugs is between the gangs who control the heroin and crack cocaine markets, which are worth about £5bn a year. Decriminalising drugs, notably cannabis, will not affect this sort of battle for territory and market share. Supply lines are very different between the different drug markets, with the heroin from Afghanistan wholesaled by Turkish and Pakistani gangs, and cocaine from Latin America controlled by Albanians.


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The legalisation of cannabis will do nothing to hurt organised crime groups, but it will make the drug much more widely available. The idea by proponents of legalisation that the government will tightly regulate its quality and sale is naive. If the authorities cannot control it when it is illegal, they will be even less able to do so when it is legal. But legalisation – and even limited decriminalisation – will send a message that taking cannabis is a benign activity and does not do you or anybody else much harm. The deterrent effect of illegality will evaporate and the drug becomes no different than alcohol and tobacco.

Once commercially available, all the old persuasive tools formerly used by the cigarette industry swing into action as is happening unstoppably in the US. Celebrities like Justin Bieber will “destigmatise” the drug and give it the gloss of youth and fashion. Once, the victims of the tobacco companies coughed up their lungs unnoticed by the wider community, and this time round the victims of cannabis will disappear into mental hospitals without anybody taking much notice.

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1 /1 Tolerance of cannabis grows – as we are shown it can cause psychosis

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Tolerance of cannabis grows – as we are shown it can cause psychosis

Legalising and commercialising cannabis is well under way from Uruguay to Canada and in at least 10 states in the US

обновления Team Foundation Service — 13 августа

Несмотря на то, что существующая поддержка Scrum остается очень популярной, мы продемонстрировали значительно растущий интерес к Канбан. Сегодня мы сообщаем и выпустим новую доску Канбан для Team Foundation Service. Теперь вы можете управлять проектом с помощью методологии Scrum с помощью канбана, а также комбинировать их, чтобы получить лучшее из них с помощью канбана визуализировать поток элементов невыполненной работы Scrum. Scrum и Канбан являются стратегиями управления работой, которые охватывают проблему, а затем визуально переходят работу через ряд состояний. Как правило, вы обычно используете больше состояний с канбаном, чем Scrum, и используете ограничения для состояний, называемых «работа в ходе выполнения» (WIP), чтобы контролировать, сколько работы может быть в каждом состоянии. хотя в Scrum используется диаграмма с графикой для визуализации и управления работой в итерации, канбан использует накопительную диаграмму Flow для визуализации работы по всей невыполненной работе. Визуализация невыполненной работы таким образом помогает выявить узкие места в процессе.

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Полное философской обсуждение различий между Scrum и канбаном приведет к заполнению томов, поэтому я не буду пытаться охватить их здесь. Если вы хотите узнать больше, я рекомендую приступить к изучению статей Википедии по Scrum и Канбан. Независимо от предпочтительного подхода мы хотим, чтобы ваше решение было принято.

Стать центральным элементом нашей новой поддержки канбана — новая Доска Канбан, связанная с невыполненной работой по продукту. Ниже можно увидеть проект Scrum с 4 состояниями: новое, утвержденное, зафиксированное и готово. Каждая пользовательская история — это карточка, а столбец — состояние. Карты выделяются на основе их состояния — серый для работы, которые не были запущены, синим для выполняется, а зеленый — для завершенной работы. Кроме того, в верхней части столбцов можно заметить некоторые числа (например, 4/4). Это ваша работа в максимальной степени. Это говорит о том, что у вас есть 4 пользовательских описания функциональности, а предельное число выполняемых работ равно 4, так что все хорошо. Подробнее об этом в минуту.

Также обратите внимание, что в правом верхнем углу показана обобщенная диаграмма потока, которую можно увеличить, щелкнув ее, чтобы получить полное представление о последовательности работы.

Если вы пометите больше работы в состоянии, чем разрешено для вашей работы, то отметите его для вас — Обратите внимание, что УТВЕРЖДЕНный заголовок и связанный счетчик WIP теперь имеют красный цвет.

Разумеется, вы сможете решить, какие ограничения работы выполняются в данный момент. Просто щелкните числа и задайте для него нужное значение.

Это только начало нашей поддержки канбана. Мы обучена сборка-мера — Узнайте, как это начать. Есть несколько вещей, о которых уже известно, что вы заметите и пропустили. Возможно, самый важный из них заключается в невозможности добавления, удаления или изменения состояний. Сейчас необходимо использовать состояния, определенные шаблоном процесса, в котором был создан проект. Мы работаем над добавлением поддержки настраиваемых состояний, чтобы искать их в предстоящем спринте. Существует несколько других вещей, над которыми вы уже работаем, включая-

  1. изменение непосредственно на карточке (например, на доске задач Agile.
  2. перетащите карту обратно из утверждения в новый. На сегодняшний день обработкой является открытие карточки, изменение состояния на «удалено» и «Сохранить» (без закрытия), а затем изменение состояния обратно на новое и сохранение & закрытия. Это быстро исправляется.
  3. и многое другое.

Но, что более важно, в конце сборки-меры мы хотим узнать, какие улучшения нужно увидеть. Начните использовать Канбан в своем проекте уже сегодня.

Мы стремимся продолжать работу с превосходными инструментами для гибких команд разработки. Team Foundation Service будет по прежнему стать самым простым способом начать работу и быстро перейти к новейшим средствам разработки и совместной работы программного обеспечения. Дополнительные сведения о нашей доске Канбан см. в разделе «изучение». Попробуйте его (Зарегистрируйтесь для получения новой учетной записи; существующие пользователи могут войти в систему) и сообщите нам свое мнение.

Two More Greasy Burger Joints Slip Into Lower Manhattan

Eater critic Robert Sietsema examines the patties at Daisies in the West Village and Mighties in the Lower East Side

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It seems like several Manhattan and Brooklyn neighborhoods are lately becoming populated with a new style of burger restaurant. Daisies in the West Village and Mighties in the Lower East Side’s Market Line are examples, both offering great versions of a classic cheeseburger.

The latest burger wave started last year in Brooklyn, at places like Cozy Royale and Burgie’s, where the beef patties shrank from behemoth bistro size to a smaller, extensively seared, butcher-driven standard. Operators with an eye toward franchising made burgers the focus of their fast-casual menus, further concentrating on clever branding. There were multi-patty versions for those who demanded more meat, and vegetarian substitutes made from Impossible Meat and others.

Months later, the trend swept into downtown Manhattan neighborhoods with a vengeance, as four new places opened in quick succession: Morgenstern’s, Bronson’s Burgers, 7th Street Burger, and Smashed, all flipping gloriously greasy burgers oozing cheese at prices ranging from $6 to $12. Of there, 7th Street’s the best, though it most closely emulated the Shake Shack model. It had an even sparser menu than Shake Shack’s, while elegantly evoking the working class burger joints of the past, like a creased black-and-white photo of a place your grandpa might have visited.

Daisies Better Burgers in the West Village.

Now, two more burger joints have appeared downtown in a similar style. Daisies Better Burgers opened just three weeks ago in a narrow space on Hudson Street near 10th Street, in a storefront that has been like a revolving door for restaurants over the last decade — most recently a place offering daylong brunch all week. The cream-colored façade open to the street sports a bright red awning, making it shine brightly on the block, and stark white tables cluster on the sidewalk in front.

Ordering is from a counter in the rear, and you can see the kitchen filling the space behind it. The counter attendants tout the sustainability and ethical sourcing of the ingredients, and indeed the website has a page listing suppliers, name-checking Niman Ranch as the source of its beef. Three burgers are available, the classic (hamburger, $11; cheeseburger, $12), a bacon burger ($13), and the “fancy b” ($15), which offers an upgrade of truffle mayo and gruyere, instead of American cheese.

Daisies classic seen in cross section.

Daisies french fries.

Don’t miss the fried cauliflower.

I tried the classic cheeseburger on two separate occasions, and the first time it was a bit dry and overcooked, but the second time it was splendid, cooked medium rare and seething with pink juices. Deposited on a shiny brioche bun, Daisies’s burgers are dressed up with lots of salad, including lettuce, tomato, sweet pickles, and red onions, perhaps in an attempt to make them even more virtuous-seeming. The effect isn’t a bad one — especially if you’re a fan of the old California garden burger style. But if the patty isn’t perfectly cooked, the mild-tasting beef recedes into the background under the vegetal onslaught.

One more aspect of this burger bears mentioning: in addition to plain mayo, it comes smeared with something called Daisies relish. On careful examination, it turns out to be a sort of tomato compote, maybe intended as a substitute for ketchup. It’s not bad, but you wouldn’t want to put it on your fries. Those fries ($4.50), by the way, are yellowish, sprinkled with herbs, and on the mushy side, though they come festively swaddled in tissue in an enamelware cup, as if this were a fancy bistro. A fried cauliflower ($7) option is better, which seems like Middle Eastern flourish.

While the beef from Daisies is mild and unassertive, the meat at Mighties (note the similar streamlined lack of apostrophe in the branding) is intensely flavorful, and not just as a result of its careful sear. This new burger counter, an offshoot of the nearby Ends Meat butcher, bravely moved last month into Market Line, the pandemic-challenged food court underneath the Essex Market.

Find Mighties in Market Line, beneath Essex Market.

Assembling burgers at Mighties.

The Mighties burger has no salad stuff on it.

The shallow kitchen is the site of frenetic activity, and the menu, using what it lists as “grass-fed beef,” offers only two burgers, as well as fries and a hot dog, plus a higher-end dry-aged burger ($22) on Fridays. The two-patty Mighties burger ($16) is the thing to get. It comes on a heavily sesame-seeded bun that’s thankfully not a brioche, with nothing but raw onions, American cheese, and a sauce that flaunts a mustardy note, though doubtlessly contains lots of other ingredients. The meat is not only intensively flavored, but has also been aggressively salted, which makes the flavors explode.

The fries are great, too — skin-on, firm, and filled with flavor. The cheeseburger ($13), which also sports lettuce, tomato, pickles, and the same sauce, along with American cheese, was not as good. Piled high, the farmers-market-level produce distracted from one of the beefiest tasting burgers I’ve ever tried. By the way, the hot dog ($7) topped with frizzled onions and shallots is worth ordering, too.

So, I’d recommend the plain cheeseburgers at Daisies and the Mighties burger at Mighties, though I’d skip the fries at the former in favor of the fried-cauliflower side, and go with the excellent fries at the latter. Still, both burgers beg comparison with the one at 7th Street Burger, which is better in my estimation.

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